What Agreement Was Reached At The November 2015
Some aspects of the agreement will be legally binding, such as the presentation of an emissions reduction target and the regular revision of that target. According to the Paris Summit Organizing Committee, the aim of the 2015 conference was to reach a binding and universal climate agreement for the first time in more than 20 years of UN negotiations.  Pope Francis published an encyclical entitled Laudato si`, which was to influence the conference in part. The encyclical calls for action against climate change: “Humanity is called upon to recognize the need to change the way of life, production and consumption in order to combat this warming or, at the very least, against the human causes that produce or aggravate it.”  The International Trade Union Confederation called for the “zero carbon, zero poverty” target to be met, and its secretary general, Sharan Burrow, reiterated that there were “no jobs on a dead planet”. On 12 December 2015, the 196 participating countries agreed on the final global pact, the Paris Agreement, to reduce emissions under the method of reducing greenhouse gases. In the 12-language document, members agreed to reduce their carbon emissions “as soon as possible” and do their best to keep global warming “at a level well below 2 degrees Celsius.”  During the debates, the Pacific Island States, seychelles, but also the Philippines, whose existence was threatened by rising sea levels, had strongly voted in favour of setting a target of 1.5oC instead of only 2oC.   French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said the “ambitious and balanced” plan was a “historic turning point” in the goal of reducing global warming.  However, others criticized the fact that important sections were “promises” or objectives and that they were not firm commitments on the part of countries.  Negotiations on the Paris Agreement began in Durban, South Africa, at COP17, with the establishment of the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform on Enhanced Measures, commonly known as the Durban Platform, in which the parties to the UNFCCC agreed to create a working group by 2020 to negotiate “another legal instrument or a legally agreed outcome” to come into force by 2020. Funding is essential to support emerging economies and support the transition to carbon-free economies. The agreement provides that from 2020, $100 billion in public and private funds will have to be mobilized each year to finance projects that allow countries to adapt to the effects of climate change (sea level rise, droughts, etc.) or to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These funds should be gradually increased and some developing countries will also be able to become donors on a voluntary basis to help the poorest countries. Global carbon dioxide emissions by country in 2015.
Carole Dieschbourg, Minister of the Environment for Luxembourg, who holds the Presidency of the Council, said: “Today is a day where we can be proud.